ADHD Market to Reach $13.9 Billion by 2024

The market for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) across the seven major markets of the US, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, the UK, and Japan, is set to experience an increase from approximately $6.1 billion in 2014 to $13.9 billion by 2024, according to research and consulting firm GlobalData.

The company’s latest report states that the robust growth can be attributed to the launch of efficacious pipeline products with convenient oral formulations or less frequent dosing than currently available products, an increase in treatment rates, and the continued awareness and recognition of ADHD in the adult age group.

GlobalData analyst Rachel Markwick, Ph.D., commented: “Currently, the ADHD market is rife with unmet needs. These include a need for more treatment options, clinically relevant head-to-head comparisons between current marketed and pipeline drugs, improved diagnostic tests, and increased education and recognition of ADHD.”

The report adds that the ADHD market would readily open up to both new and existing drugs that address other unmet needs in this space.

Taken from pharmexec

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3 Tips Help Parents of Kids with ADHD

USA Medical provides useful information to parents of children with ADHD to help navigate another school year. It has been reported that more than 1 in 10 children between 4-17 years old are diagnosed with this disorder, and the numbers continue to rise.

The 3 groups of ADHD symptoms are impulsivity, hyperactivity and inattention. They may manifest as disorganization, lack of focus or impatience—behavioral challenges for students. These 3 tips may help:

  • Reduce background noises to optimize the environment for concentration and decision-making.
  • Select slow-paced programming and limit device usage to 1 hour per day across all screens including computers, TV and video games.
  • Listen and talk to your child. Communication is essential for the development of interpersonal and language skills.

Parents should also be aware of new mandates that require schools to provide proper learning accommodations for students with ADHD, which are also meant to help protect them from bullying.

Know more @ prnewswire.

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More than 1 in 7 American kids diagnosed with ADHD

More than one in seven American kids gets diagnosed with ADHD. Alan Schwarz, author of the book “ADHD Nation” joins CBSN with more on the history of the disorder and its current role.

Watch the video below..

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ADHD Epidemiology

The epidemiological rates for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) vary considerably throughout the world. This is thought to be due to environmental and behavioral changes, in addition to differences in diagnostic criteria used throughout the world.

It is more common in boys than in girls. As it is diagnosed in childhood and the symptoms may improve with time, the prevalence is higher in children than in adults.

In the United States
The incidence of ADHD in school-aged children in the United States (US) is approximately 3-7%, which is around 1 in 20 children affected. The prevalence varies considerably according to the race and ethnic origin of the individual – children of Mexican background appear to be at lower risk.

One study that compared children with ADHD from 1998 to 2009 found that the rates of the condition seem to be increasing with time. For example, the number of children diagnosed with the condition rose to 7-9%. Additionally, the prevalence of ADHD in children with family incomes below the poverty level increased to 10-11%.

In the United Kingdom
The incidence of ADHD in the United Kingdom (UK) is less than 1%, which is considerably less than that in the US. This difference is thought to be associated with both environmental factors and the heterogeneity of the condition itself. Additionally, the diagnostic criteria to be diagnosed with ADHD in the UK may be stricter than those used in the US, which may contribute to the differences in recorded epidemiological rates.

Around the World
The prevalence of ADHD appears to vary considerably throughout different regions of the world. It is highest in South America, North America and Africa whilst lower prevalence rates have been noted in the Middle East, Asia, Australia, and Europe. Importantly, there are various factors that may contribute to the differences in prevalence in these areas.

Morbidity and Mortality
Children with ADHD appear to be at a higher risk of developing conduct and substance abuse problems in adolescence and adulthood in comparison to children who are not affected. They also may have more difficulty in academic activities, social engagement and finding employment. This has the potential to affect quality of life and may also be associated with a higher risk of suicide, although exact morbidity and mortality rates have not been established.

Age and Gender

According to the DSM-V diagnostic criteria, ADHD involves the presentation of several inattentive or hyper-impulsive symptoms before the age of 12. Therefore, the age of onset is in childhood and the symptoms may persist or fade after this point. For this reason, the prevalence is higher in children and lower in adults. Approximately 1 in 6 children with ADHD will maintain the full diagnosis with persistent symptoms into adulthood, and most children will continue to experience residual symptoms.

ADHD is 3-5 times more common in young boys than girls. However, the sex ratio tends to approach equilibrium in adulthood as the symptoms of more boys than girls usually improve. Girls with ADHD are typically more affected by the inattention type of the condition.

Taken from news-medical

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Heredity a major factor in ADHD, binge eating and alcohol dependence

A new research concludes that it is mostly hereditary factors that lie behind adults with ADHD often developing alcohol dependence and binge eating, . Since heredity plays such a large role, it is important that ADHD is treated at an early stage, and that measures are taken to prevent individuals developing these disorders later in life.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has received most attention in children, but 2.5-5% of the global adult population also has ADHD. Andrea Johansson Capusan, consultant in psychiatry, focusses in her thesis on binge eating and alcohol dependence in adults with ADHD symptoms.

Both disorders are more common in adults with ADHD than in the general population. Andrea Johansson Capusan has investigated in particular how much of the correlation between the disorders can be explained by hereditary factors and how much by environmental factors.

The Swedish Twin Registry has enabled her to compare identical twins, who share 100% of their genes, with fraternal twins, whose genetic makeups are no more similar to each other than any pair of siblings. Twin pairs grow up in the same environment, but are affected by individual environmental factors, such as diseases and their circles of friends. In twin studies, researchers investigate whether correlations are stronger in identical twins than in fraternal twins.

This can help them to determine whether the correlation between different conditions can best be explained by a person’s genetic background giving higher susceptibility to a condition, or whether environmental factors are significant. The four studies that are included in the thesis have examined more than 18,000 twin pairs aged between 20 and 46 years. The twins have completed questionnaires about the ADHD symptoms they have experienced, their consumption of alcohol and other substances, and binge eating behaviour.

“We have shown for the first time that the correlation between ADHD symptoms and binge eating in women depends mainly on a common hereditary susceptibility for the two disorders. Much of the correlation between alcohol dependence and ADHD can also be explained by genetic factors. The remainder of the correlation is explained by environmental factors that are particular for the individual, which is interesting. It seems that having a common environment while growing up is not significant,” says Andrea Johansson Capusan.

Since her research suggests that certain individuals inherit a susceptibility for both ADHD symptoms and dependency disorders or binge eating, Andrea Johansson Capusan believes that these problems must be treated in parallel.

“When treating adults who come with dependency disorder or substance-abuse behaviour, it’s important to remember that ADHD is very common in these patients. And conversely-it’s important to treat ADHD early in order to prevent alcohol dependence and binge eating later in life,” says Andrea Johansson Capusan.

Taken from sciencedaily.

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Autism severity linked to genetics, ultrasound, data analysis finds

For children with autism and a class of genetic disorders, exposure to diagnostic ultrasound in the first trimester of pregnancy is linked to increased autism severity, according to a new study.

For children with autism and a class of genetic disorders, exposure to diagnostic ultrasound in the first trimester of pregnancy is linked to increased autism severity, according to a study by researchers at UW Medicine, UW Bothell and Seattle Children’s Research Institute.

The study published Sept. 1 in Autism Research studied the variability of symptoms among kids with autism, not what causes autism. What they found is that exposure to diagnostic ultrasound in the first trimester is linked to increased autism symptom severity. The greatest link is among kids with certain genetic variations associated with autism; 7 percent of the children in the study had those variations.

FDA guidelines currently recommend that diagnostic ultrasound only be used for medical necessity.

“I believe the implications of our results are to bolster the FDA guidelines,” said corresponding author Pierre Mourad, a UW professor of neurological surgery in Seattle and of engineering & mathematics in Bothell who specializes in translational research on ultrasound and the brain.

Mourad said their results are about the first trimester of pregnancy. Data looking at the effect of ultrasound on the second and third trimester showed no link, he said.

Taken from sciencedaily

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According to Neurologist Richard Saul who has written a book called “ADHD Does Not Exist: The Truth About Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder”, the amount of people who are suffering from Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder is zero.

Richard Saul is a neurologist who has had a long career in examining patients who have been having trouble with short attention spans and inability to focus. From his first hand experience, he feels that ADHD is nothing more than a fake disorder that is really only an umbrella of symptoms and not actually a disease. He strongly feels that it should not be listed as a separate disorder in the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic & Statistical Manual.

As it stands, ADHD is defined as a psychiatric disorder that is neurodevelopmental. In order for diagnosis, significant issues with attention and/or hyperactivity and acting impulsively that are not appropriate for a person’s age must be present. The number of ADHD diagnoses has increased greatly in recent years due to the fact that doctors are using the disorder as a simple means to not only explain lack of focus or attention but also to allow the use of medication which can mean direct benefit for the doctor. Saul feels that many parents these days are looking for any way to get their kids to sit down and remain quiet and ADHD, and the medications that go along with it, can be the quick fix they are looking for. Currently, 1 in 9 children are labelled as ADHD and of that, two-thirds of them are on some sort of drug.

Unfortunately this solution is not an effective one as the drugs are dangerous and contain addictive stimulants. While many doctors are prescribing them without question, there should be a lot more thought that goes into addressing the root issue well before drugs are pushed. According to Saul, trying to treat something like ADHD as a disease is a big mistake. It can be seen as going into a doctor’s office with heart pains and simply being prescribed painkillers. Yes, you may walk away pain-free for a few hours, but then you die of a heart attack. Without looking to the core issue, we cannot properly know what is going on.

Taken from collective-evolution.

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Pointers for parents in helping diagnose ADHD

The diagnosis of ADHD is multifactorial and relies upon the following:
– thorough clinical interview of the child
– collateral interviews with individuals who see the child in numerous settings
– an early age of onset of at least some of the symptoms (by age 12)
– symptoms in more than one setting (school and home)
– The clinical interview should include a diagnostic assessment of the primary complaint and a review of other possible explanations for the observed symptoms. More specifically, the clinician should assess not only for inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, but also mood, anxiety, psychosis, trauma, vocal and motor
tics, and substance abuse.

Although there is no “test” to establish the diagnosis of ADHD, neuropsychological testing is often useful in measuring symptom severity.

Quick facts:
– The first symptom of ADHD most often reported is hyperactivity. Thus, the “inattentive ones” are often missed.
– Between 3-7% of schoolchildren are affected, with males being more commonly affected
– Children/adolescents with untreated ADHD are at a much higher risk of developing substance abuse when they reach adulthood – those treated with stimulants have much lower rates of substance abuse

– The natural history of ADHD follows the “rule of thirds”:
o 1/3 demonstrate symptom resolution and are not terribly bothered in adulthood
o 1/3 continue to experience inattention into adulthood
o 1/3 continue to experience symptoms in all domains (hyperactivity, impulsivity, inattention) and to suffer other related difficulties, such as oppositional defiance, conduct-disordered behavior, excessively poor academic achievement, substance abuse, and perhaps even antisocial traits as adults

Treatment for ADHD typically involves three primary considerations:
– Medication
– Behavioral therapy
– Educational support (IEP and/or 504 plan)

Taken from wabi

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How Illegal Drugs And ADHD Medications Are Polluting Urban Streams?

Both legal and illegal drugs are polluting streams in and around at least 1 major U.S. city, a new study reveals. This includes amphetamines, which are biologically active and highly addictive.

The pollution comes at a high cost, ecologically. Areas in some streams have high enough concentrations of amphetamines to alter the bottom of the aquatic food chain.

Study author Sylvia Lee said:

“Around the world, treated and untreated wastewater entering surface waters contains pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs that originate from human consumption and excretion, manufacturing processes, or improper disposal.

We were interested in revealing how amphetamine exposure influences the small plants and animals that play a large role in regulating the health of streams.”

What Are Amphetamines?
Amphetamines are stimulant drugs that are often used prescribed by doctors to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. Illegal amphetamines include cocaine and crystal meth.

How This Impacts Aquatic Life And Environments?

In 2013 and 2014, Lee and her colleagues collected water samples from 6 sites in streams flowing from a city to a rural area and measured the concentrations of both legal and illegal drugs in the water.

The streams originated in Baltimore, Maryland. The stream sites involved the Gwynns Falls watershed, in addition to 2 rural streams from the Oregon Ridge watershed.

The water tested positive for many substances, including amphetamines. Levels of illegal drugs were highest in the streams closest to the city.

Once the team collected their field samples, they conducted an artificial stream experiment to demonstrate how amphetamine affects stream life.

The researchers suspect the drugs are making their way into the ecosystem through people excreting them. Humans excrete other chemicals, as well, including contraceptive drugs and antidepressants, both of which are getting into fish, amphibians, and aquatic plants, putting their populations in jeopardy.

The problem is likely worsening and will continue to do so. Between 2003 and 2011, the number of children diagnosed with ADHD rose 42%, and 74% of those cases are treated with drugs like Adderall or Ritalin, both of which contain amphetamine.

The End Result
The good news is that amphetamines tend to last no more than a few days in the environment. However, most of the drugs are taken up by organisms like those tested in the study. Should the organisms nearest to sewage plants become altered, it could impact the entire stream ecosystem.

Taken from naturalsociety

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Autism Risk Linked to Banned Chemicals, Not Vaccines

The search for the underlying causes of autism has sparked heated debates and an unfortunate glut of bad science.

Scientists have been trying actively to repair some of the lasting damage that has befallen not only the science behind vaccinations but also the research surrounding autism, which is always called into question due to previous failings.

In the past several years, researchers have published findings linking various mutant genes to cases that fall within the autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, these studies only account for a small number of ASD cases, and scientists are still unclear as to how these particular genetic mutations arise. Now, investigators at Drexel University have published evidence that several chemicals used in certain pesticides and as insulating material banned in the 1970s may still be haunting us—hypothesizing a link between higher levels of exposure to these chemicals during pregnancy and significantly increased odds of ASD in children.

The Drexel team found that children born after being exposed to the highest levels of organochlorine chemicals during their mother’s pregnancy were roughly 80% more likely to be diagnosed with autism when compared to individuals with the very lowest levels of these chemicals. Although production of organochlorine chemicals was banned in the United States in 1977, these compounds have been shown to remain in the environment and become absorbed in the fat of animals that humans eat, leading to exposure.

This led the research team to look at organochlorine chemicals during pregnancy because they can cross the placenta barrier and affect the fetus’ neurodevelopment.

“There’s a fair amount of research examining exposure to these chemicals during pregnancy in association with other outcomes, like birth weight—but little research on autism, specifically,” explained Kristen Lyall, Sc.D., assistant professor in Drexel University’s A.J. Drexel Autism Institute. “To examine the role of environmental exposures in risk of autism, it is important that samples are collected during time frames with evidence for susceptibility for autism—termed ‘critical windows’ in neurodevelopment. Fetal development is one of those critical windows.”

The research team looked at a population sample of 1144 children born in southern California between 2000 and 2003. Data was accrued from mothers who had enrolled in California’s Expanded Alphafetoprotein Prenatal Screening Program, which is dedicated to detecting birth defects during pregnancy. The participants’ children were separated into three groups: 545 who were diagnosed with ASD, 181 with intellectual disabilities but no autism diagnosis, and 418 with a diagnosis of neither.

The findings from this study were published recently in Environmental Health Perspectives in an article entitled “Polychlorinated Biphenyl and Organochlorine Pesticide Concentrations in Maternal Mid-Pregnancy Serum Samples: Association with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability.”

Blood tests were taken from mothers in their second trimester and used to determine the level of exposure to two different classes of organochlorine chemicals: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, which were used as lubricants, coolants, and insulators in consumer and electrical products) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs, which include chemicals like DDT).

“Exposure to PCBs and OCPs is ubiquitous,” Dr. Lyall noted. “Work from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which includes pregnant women, shows that people in the U.S. generally still have measurable levels of these chemicals in their bodies.”

Yet, the exposure levels seemed to be key in determining risk, with Dr. Lyall emphasizing that “adverse effects are related to levels of exposure, not just presence or absence of detectable levels. In our southern California study population, we found evidence for modestly increased risk for individuals in the highest 25th percentile of exposure to some of these chemicals.”

Interestingly, the investigators found that two compounds in particular—PCB138/158 and PCB153—stood out as being significantly linked with autism risk. Children with the highest in utero levels of these two forms of PCBs were between 79% and 82% more likely to have an autism diagnosis than those found to be exposed to the lowest levels. High levels of two other compounds, PCB170 and PCB180, were also associated with children being approximately 50% more likely to be diagnosed.

“The results suggest that prenatal exposure to these chemicals above a certain level may influence neurodevelopment in adverse ways,” Dr. Lyall concluded. “We are definitely doing more research to build on this—including work examining genetics, as well as mixtures of chemicals. This investigation draws from a rich dataset, and we need more studies like this in autism research.”

Taken from genengnews

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