The first 1,000 Days: A Crucial Time for Mothers and Children—And the World

The first 1,000 days of a child’s life — from conception through the second birthday – are incredibly deterministic.

The time of your pregnancy and first two years of life will determine the health of your child, the ability to learn in school, to perform a future job. This is the time the brain grows the most.

And yet, it’s the time when so many women and children don’t get what they need. Around the globe, a quarter of all children 5 and under are stunted, according to the World Health Organization. That’s about 170 million kids. These children experience slow physical growth and cognitive delays that can last a lifetime. A chief cause being lack of good nutrition.

In The first 1,000 Days: A Crucial Time for Mothers and Children—And the World, award-winning journalist and world hunger advocate Roger Thurow examines the importance of the 1,000 days and the progress of the new global movement to end early childhood malnutrition.

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Is Use of Diabetes Meds in Pregnancy Linked to ADHD?

Risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be increased in children of mothers who used medication for gestational diabetes or type 2 diabetes for more than 2 months during pregnancy, new research shows.

“Our data show that children exposed to their mothers’ gestational diabetes or type 2 diabetes that required antidiabetic medication during pregnancy were found to be at greater risk of ADHD than children” who were not exposed to antidiabetic medications, reported Anny Xiang, PhD, Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC), Pasadena, at the recent European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) 2016 Annual Meeting.

“The magnitude of association seems to increase with increasing duration of…use,” she added. “In children whose mothers took antidiabetic medication for over 60 days, after multivariate adjustment, we found a 23% increased incidence of ADHD (hazard ratio [HR], 1.23; P = .06).”

Comoderator of the session, Alexandra Kautzky-Willer, MD, professor of gender medicine at the Medical University of Vienna, Austria, commented on the findings, bearing in mind that 85% of the pregnant women in the study were on insulin treatment.

“These results are interesting, but we cannot say that insulin has a negative effect on offspring. It would be good to know about the hyperglycemic states of patients, which were not actually discussed but might be related to the outcomes.”

Dr Kautzky-Willer emphasized that it was an important study due to the lack of work in this field currently and because insulin treatment is very common in pregnant women with type 2 diabetes. However, she stressed, “We cannot conclude that medication is dangerous at the moment.”

Fellow moderator Adam Tabak, MD, PhD, from University College, London, United Kingdom, agreed. These are “interesting hypothesis-generating data, but I wouldn’t rush to any conclusions at this stage. We need more phenotypically defined details of the population and to catch the unmeasured confounders,” he stated.

Knowledge Gap: Gestational Diabetes, Type 2 Diabetes, and ADHD

Maternal type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes are associated with increased risks of perinatal morbidities as well as obesity and metabolic disorders in the child, but the relationship between gestational diabetes and neurobehavioral disorders is not well studied, noted Dr Xiang.

This large, retrospective, population-based study aimed to assess the association of maternal type 2 diabetes or gestational diabetes with the risk of ADHD in the offspring, she added.

Information was extracted from electronic medical records on singleton pregnancies from 1995 to 2009 held by KPSC where delivery occurred between 18 and 44 gestational weeks.

Children with a diagnosis of autism were excluded, as were mothers with type 1 diabetes or polycystic ovarian syndrome, to focus specifically on type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes, explained Dr Xiang.

Participant children were followed until the date of diagnosis of ADHD, last date of KPSC membership, death, or until December 31, 2014.

Children exposed to type 2 diabetes or gestational diabetes were stratified according to maternal age and ethnicity, and they were matched with children not exposed to maternal diabetes.

Taken from @ medscape

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The deadly dangers of ADHD drugs

MANY AMERICANS believe that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is overdiagnosed, but few people appreciate the connection between ADHD and our country’s epidemic of opiate and heroin abuse.

That’s because prominent ADHD thought leaders have strategically and relentlessly promoted a false sense of the value and safety of ADHD drug treatment.

The manufacturers of ADHD drugs have financed a network of psychiatrists, psychologists and pediatricians to legitimize ever-expanding rates of ADHD treatment. They have done so by spreading well-rehearsed lies and vengeful attacks against professionals who dare to expose realities that conflict with industry profit motives —motives that contribute billions to drug company coffers each year.

Anyone who has considered ADHD treatment for his or her child has heard such things as “ADHD drugs are safer than aspirin,” “brain scans reveal anatomical differences between people with and without ADHD” and “the real problem of ADHD is under-diagnosis, not over-diagnosis.” The drug companies want people to believe that anyone who questions the legitimacy of ADHD is a “fringe doctor” or a “social critic” who should be ignored.

The professionals who have been paid to spread such misinformation are worse than snake oil salesmen. Their wares are dangerous, and their actions are counter to the vows they have taken as medical professionals.

As detailed in “Shooting the Messenger: The Case of ADHD,” a 2013 paper I co-authored that was published in the Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, some industry shills have instigated false allegations of scientific misconduct against researchers whose findings stood to expose dangerous fallout of ADHD overdiagnosis.

The unfounded and malicious allegations of these industry-funded thought leaders were taken seriously. Consequently, massive and uniquely informative sets of ADHD-related data collected by psychologists at Stanford University and Eastern Virginia Medical School (and by researchers elsewhere) were suppressed.

In the ensuing years, millions of American children have been treated for ADHD. They have been growing up and showing up on college campuses with ADHD drugs in hand. Students underestimate the risks associate with abuse of ADHD drugs.

The drugs are sold, stolen and shared for a host of nonmedical reasons. They are used by students who want to lose weight or stay up all night to study. Students often mix them with alcohol and other drugs, with serious and sometimes lethal consequences.

When crushed and snorted, stimulant drugs have the same effect as cocaine, but ADHD pills are cheaper and easier to obtain. Each year, growing numbers of young people are admitted to hospital emergency rooms due to the effects of ADHD drug abuse. For some, ADHD drugs have proven lethal. For others, ADHD drugs are a gateway to the abuse of other addictive medications, including opiates.

After decades of searching for biological causes, ADHD remains a social construct, not a biological entity. The question is whether the ADHD construct has outlived its safety and usefulness. Perhaps Americans should consider what the so-called “fringe doctors” and “social critics” have been saying.

Taken from pilotonline

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The Influence of Diet on ADHD

For years, clinicians have suspected that diet may affect ADHD symptoms, and in recent years, research has suggested a potential impact of various aspects of diet on ADHD. This research includes examining the use of elimination diets, as well as studying the effects of omega-3 fatty acids and micronutrients on the disorder. Our knowledge in this area has begun to coalesce, and new directions have been illuminated.

Elimination and restriction diets

One of the most heavily speculated about and long-studied research areas in ADHD and nutrition is the use of elimination diets. While they come in many forms, in general, elimination diets are used to test whether the removal of specific dietary components leads to improvement in ADHD symptoms. In a second phase, elimination diets can be followed by dietary challenges, in which the food items being tested are given to patients, to observe whether symptoms return on reintroduction.

Mechanisms may reflect food allergies (immune-mediated reactions) and/or food sensitivities (nonimmunological reactions), but to date no laboratory tests have succeeded in predicting dietary response in youth with ADHD. Nonetheless, evidence of the past few years has consistently shown that restriction/elimination diets may be effective in reducing the ADHD symptoms, with up to a 30% probability of response.1 This effect size likely masks wide variation in response, with some children responding more beneficially than others.

Artificial food coloring and preservatives have been the primary foci of food sensitivity in children with ADHD. A recent meta-analysis concluded that there is enough evidence to suggest that artificial coloring can be a trigger for some patients, with a modest effect of g = 0.29, although with a fairly wide confidence interval because of the small size of the studies that have been reported.2 Thus, it may be that for some youths, a diet free of processed foods containing additives, particularly colorings and preservatives, would improve symptoms. Processed foods are major sources of artificial colors, especially in children’s foods and drinks, in which bright colors are used to make food more attractive.

Fatty acids

There has been great interest in the potential for polyunsaturated fatty acids and, in particular, omega-3 fatty acids to modify ADHD symptoms. The literature includes nearly 2 dozen studies involving hundreds of children. Meta-analyses have now demonstrated that low circulating concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids are associated with ADHD, and that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation has a similarly small but reliable benefit as the restriction of food additives.3-5 The effect size for both the restriction of artificial colors and supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids is about one-quarter the size of a medication effect.

Although recent literature reviews have concluded that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation is an effective treatment (category 5) and dietary restriction is a probably effective (category 4) intervention, no dietary changes are currently recognized in formal clinical guidelines for ADHD treatment. Thus, these remain options for complementary or alternative treatments.

It may be that food restriction—as well as supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids—produces only modest aggregate effects due to substantial variation in response, with some children having greater benefits than others. However, another possibility is that larger effects would accrue when these dietary strategies are combined with adequate micronutrient intake. For example, other nutrients (eg, vitamin D, minerals), in combination with omega-3 fatty acids, may provide synergistic effects over omega-3 fatty acids alone.

Taken from psychiatrictimes

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Deep TMS Promising for OCD, ADHD, Other Mental Illnesses

Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS), already approved for treatment-resistant depression, is proving beneficial for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), adult attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and other psychiatric conditions, according to new research.

The success of the technology depends on targeting the most appropriate brain regions, the research suggests.

Results from some of these new studies were presented here at American Psychiatric Association (APA) 2016 Annual Meeting.

A number of psychiatric disorders are associated with abnormal neuronal activity patterns in deep brain regions. Such abnormal activity is the target of TMS.

The noninvasive technology involves applying brief magnetic pulses to the brain. The pulses are administered by passing high currents through an electromagnetic coil placed adjacent to the patient’s scalp. The pulses induce an electric field in the underlying brain tissue.

Conventional TMS was approved in 2008 for the treatment of major depressive disorder, which affects an estimated 15 million Americans a year. But this approach misses the target about 30% of the time, according to Aron Tendler, MD, chief medical officer, Brainsway Ltd.

By contrast, the company’s Deep TMS System has a “wider, broader, and significantly deeper field,” said Dr Tendler.

The Brainsway device, which is encased in a helmet that holds a large magnet, was approved for use in depression in 2013. The company is now investigating different coils and stimulation targets to treat other conditions, including OCD, ADHD, and smoking cessation.

In one study, deep TMS was used in 12 patients who had failed not only drug therapy but also at least one course of electric convulsive therapy, which is considered “the most aggressive treatment for depression,” said Dr Tendler.

Ten of these patients underwent an adequate dTMS treatment trial. When the daily pulse intensity, but not the number of sessions, was increased, depression improved.

Dr Tendler also presented promising results of another randomized, sham-controlled study of the device ― this time in 42 adult patients with ADHD. Here, the target of the stimulation was the right prefrontal cortex.

Although stimulants are an effective treatment for ADHD, some patients cannot tolerate them, said Dr Tendler. “Taking stimulants for a long time is not necessarily the best thing for everybody,” he said.

Taken from medscape

Know about other alternative therapies for ADHD @ Holistic Therapies for ADHD.

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Study looks at ADHD treatment in teens at risk for bipolar disorder

A study at the University of Cincinnati (UC) will look at brain changes in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, known as ADHD, before and after treatment with medication.

Researchers at UC will use neuroimaging (magnetic resonance imaging or MRI) to examine the effects of standard treatment for ADHD (a psychostimulant medication, like Adderall) on brain structure and function in adolescents with a first-degree relative with bipolar disorder.

Symptoms of ADHD can include hyperactivity, fidgeting, trouble focusing or the need to get up frequently—behaviors like these that may have a negative impact at home, school or in social environments.

“Deficits in attention during childhood and early adolescence frequently precede the emergence of bipolar disorder in youth who have a family member with bipolar disorder,” says a lead researcher of the study Robert McNamara, PhD, professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience and director of the Lipidomics Research Program. McNamara is a co-principal investigator for the study along with Melissa DelBello, MD, Dr. Stanley and Mickey Kaplan Professor and Chair of the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience at the UC College of Medicine and co-director of the Mood Disorders Center.

“Because youth at risk for bipolar disorder often initially present with ADHD, they are commonly prescribed a psychostimulant medication, and it is presently unknown whether this increases risk for precipitating the onset of bipolar disorder. By studying early brain changes in response to psychostimulant treatment, we will develop a better understanding of how this standard ADHD treatment may affect high-risk youth differently,” says McNamara.

This type of research study can help inform treating physicians, explains McNamara; whether an ADHD patient is at risk for developing bipolar disorder may warrant closer monitoring following a prescription of a psychostimulant, or a different treatment strategy altogether.

Another goal of the study is to investigate whether omega-3 fatty acid deficiencies exhibited by youth at high-risk for bipolar disorder influence brain changes in response to psychostimulant medications.

“Omega-3 fatty acids, present primarily in fish, have been found to play a crucial role in brain development,” says McNamara. “Previous research has shown that adolescents at a high risk for bipolar disorder exhibit low levels of omega-3 fatty acids, and that low omega-3 levels can lead to a different behavioral response to psychostimulants.”

Those enrolled in the study will receive two MRI scans and evaluations every two weeks over the course of the 12-week study.

Taken from medicalxpress

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Small classes, individual plans aid students with ADHD

While any good school should be concerned with tailoring its educational experience to suit each child, large class sizes and limited resources don’t always allow for the ideal scenario.

For schools that specialize in teaching and supporting students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, though, this is especially important, and it can be a huge relief for parents when they finally discover a school that fully understands their son’s or daughter’s condition.

“When parents come here, they’ve often made this decision to move their kids into the private system because the other systems have failed them and their kids,” says Karen MacMillan, co-executive director of the Foothills Academy in Calgary.

The academy, which specializes in teaching students with learning disabilities and ADHD, has 285 students from Grades 3 to 12. One of the defining features of Foothills is its small class sizes, ranging from 12 to 14 students per class, with a teacher and an educational assistant for each.

ADHD, which is defined by spells of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, is the most common psychiatric disorder found in children, affecting about one to three children in every classroom, according to the Centre for ADHD/ADD Advocacy Canada.

Ms. MacMillan says at least half of the school population at Foothills has ADHD, but the attention each child gets ensures that an educational strategy is geared to each student.

“One of our big focuses is on helping identify everyone’s strengths and weaknesses and strategies that work best for them, so that individualization is huge,” she says.

Foothills places a great emphasis on movement and learning, including an early morning physical education class that allows students to burn off some of the extra energy that many children with ADHD have. Regularly changing activities, chunking them together and providing clear breaks are other important tactics, according to Ms. MacMillan.

The school also puts in place a rewards-and-consequences structure, so students can benefit from good behaviour in the classroom with things such as social time or personal time on a computer.

To make students as comfortable as possible during lessons, Foothills provides aids such as fidget toys, cushions and exercise balls to allow them to customize their learning experience.

“You’ll see if you walk into any of our classrooms that different kids are using different strategies and that flexibility really allows them to find what works best for them,” Ms. MacMillan says.

Identifying each student’s strengths and weaknesses, and then building on that, is another important factor, and that is equally important on the non-academic side, ensuring that every student has something in which they feel competent.

“If you’re a kid who struggles in every subject, you’re just going through your day feeling very challenged and uncomfortable,” Ms. MacMillan says.

As a result, each teacher also runs a club or sports team. One student contacted a teacher over the summer, saying that yo-yoing had become an interest and that the student wanted to form a club as a result.

“So we started a yo-yo club this year and that’s just so typical of what happens,” Ms. MacMillan says.

Clubs and activities are also an important part of what Rosseau Lake College does to support its ADHD students. A day and boarding school catering to fewer than 100 students from Grade 7-12 in Rosseau, Ont., Rosseau Lake has one faculty member to every seven students to ensure students get the right amount of interaction with teachers.

While Rosseau Lake doesn’t specialize solely in accommodating students with ADHD, it does have several students with the disorder. However, the school’s Future Forward program, which looks at the learning preferences of each student, provides the benefits of an individualized educational approach.

Under the Future Forward program, each assignment doesn’t necessarily require an essay, although each student is taught how to write a well-structured essay, but instead students are offered choice.

“So someone who is maybe strong as a speaker, with verbal skills, which often goes hand-in-hand with ADHD kids, we tap into that strength and allow them to use that strength,” says Cheryl Bissonette, student services lead at Rosseau Lake.

Every student also has a teacher/mentor who stays with that student throughout their time at the school. There are also tutorial periods built into the schedule for extra academic support, and the math and science teachers will offer extra help during the lunch hour for students who require extra attention.

With its location on the shores of Lake Rosseau, the school also takes advantage of its scenic surroundings by building outdoor learning spaces, including one in Lady Eaton’s Garden, named for the wife of the department store magnate, who previously owned school property.

“We want lots of movement, lots of activity, no longer traditional teaching,” Ms. Bissonette says. “The teacher is not the holder of knowledge, they’re the facilitator and the guider and the coach.”

Ultimately though, Rosseau Lake’s approach is all about giving students greater self-awareness and coping skills to manage their lives.

“It’s important for any student, whether they have ADHD or not, to understand what their personal strengths are,” Ms. Bissonette says. “We also have to help students recognize their weaknesses so they can accommodate for them, and then when they leave us are able to advocate for themselves.”

Taken from theglobeandmail

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Simply Boisterous or Signs of ADHD

When a child is inattentive, hyperactive and impulsive, there are two extremes which are generally manifested; it’s either attributed to a temporary phase in growing-up years and is ignored or the child is put on instant medication after being diagnosed of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

While there is rising concern in Western countries that childhood is being over-medicalised due to ADHD misdiagnosis, India is on the other end of the spectrum where the problem, more often than not, goes unacknowledged.

There is a middle ground, according to experts, that should be adopted – where ADHD is recognised and handled with therapy instead of drugs in milder cases, or even pre-empted by channelising the excess energy kids have.

Misdiagnosis, Medication and Therapy – the Grey Area

ADHD is a mental disorder and can be easily spotted in kids suffering from it.

“If the child is very restless, fidgety and cannot concentrate on enjoyable things or on studies, that’s when doubts arise and it needs to be assessed whether the child has ADHD or not.” – Dr Sumant Khanna, Delhi-based consultant psychiatrist

It may be missed in very mild cases and is obvious in severe cases, he added. It’s the grey area in between where one has to be careful.

The situation may persist and today adult ADHD is also recognised, but the symptoms have to be there in early childhood and would be clear before the age of seven.

In a lot of cases, the severity isn’t that much that it requires medication and therapy would easily address the situation. But an over-diagnosis or over-assessment of ADHD can be seen in many situations which leads to unnecessary prescription of chemicals that a child doesn’t need. – Dr Geet Oberoi, Special Educator.

Occupational therapy, which employs a string of physical activities for the child to engage in, is the most common and effective in dealing with ADHD.

Let Kids be Kids and Channelise the Excess Energy

The children today are increasingly consuming preservatives, junk food and cold drinks which increases their sugar intake leading to excess energy.

This excess energy in kids is not being utilised, with schools and education system in India requiring kids to be confined to a desk from a very early age. We need to let kids be kids and let them be physically active to channelise that energy. – Sudeshna Nath, Senior School Counsellor, DPS Ghaziabad

With kids being glued to computers, TV screens and mobile phones from an early age, they are no longer seen engaging in physical activities and running around in playgrounds.

We can reduce the current number of ADHD cases by almost half if we just let the kids channelise that energy into productive acitivities, adds Sudeshna Nath.

Ignorance Can Lead to Bigger Emotional Issues

If the problem is not addressed, ADHD can lead to other psychiatric illnesses, says Dr Khanna.

The parents and teachers need to recognise the importance of effectively dealing with the cases, otherwise the situation can escalate into bigger emotional issues.

If the child is in a scenario where the teachers or parents don’t understand them, and is reprimanded for something that they cannot help then slowly with time this might lead to depression and affect their self-esteem. – Dr Geet Oberoi

There is an urgent need to bring this into conversation, change the status quo and start addressing that there is a problem in the first place.

At the same time, misdiagnosing ADHD cases and straightaway resorting to medication instead of therapies which can go a long way is also harmful.

A balance is required while keeping in mind that the way it’s dealt with affects the most crucial formative stage in a person’s life, childhood.

Taken from thequint

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An ADHD diagnosis puts girls at much higher risk for other mental health problems

Girls with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are at higher risk than girls without ADHD for multiple mental disorders that often lead to cascading problems such as abusive relationships, teenage pregnancies, poor grades and drug abuse, UCLA psychologists report in the journal Pediatrics.

“We knew the girls with ADHD would have more problems than the girls without ADHD, but we were surprised that conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder were at the top of the list, not depression or anxiety,” said Steve Lee, a UCLA associate professor of psychology and senior author of the study. “These conduct disorders, more than anxiety and depression, predict severe adult impairments, such as risky sexual behavior, abusive relationships, drug abuse and crime.”

ADHD can begin in pre-school kids and can persist into high school and into adulthood, especially when it’s accompanied by oppositional conduct disorder.

The psychologists analyzed 18 studies of 1,997 girls, about 40 percent (796) of whom had ADHD. Most of the girls were between ages 8 and 13. Most ADHD studies focused on boys, or compared girls with ADHD to boys with ADHD — not to girls without ADHD.

ADHD is often harder to detect in girls than in boys because girls with the disorder may appear disengaged, forgetful or disorganized, and perceived as “spacey” and stay “under the radar” without being referred for assessment and treatment, said lead author Irene Tung, a UCLA graduate student in psychology and National Science Foundation graduate research fellow.

What should concerned parents do?

If a child’s negative behavior lasts for months and is adversely affecting her or his social relationships and school performance, then it’s worth having your child evaluated by a psychologist or psychiatrist for ADHD and other mental disorders.

Parents of girls with ADHD should carefully monitor signs of disruptive behavior, anxiety and depression, Tung said. “Early management of ADHD and related symptoms will be critical in helping young girls function successfully at school and socially, and feel confident,” she said.

“People tend to think of girls as having higher risk for depression and anxiety disorders, and boys as being more likely to exhibit conduct disorders, but we found that ADHD for girls substantially increases their risk for these conduct disorders,” Tung said. “In many cases, the school can provide support, including an evaluation by a school psychologist.”

The good news, the psychologists said, is that there are effective treatments — some involving pharmaceuticals, and others that involve seeing a therapist, as well as effective parenting strategies to manage the behavior.

“Kids with ADHD need structure and consistency, more than the average child; they need to know the rules and the rules need to be applied consistently,” Lee said.

Lee and Tung recommend that parents provide positive reinforcement for good behavior; this does not have to be monetary.

“For some of these kids, getting negative attention may be their only way of getting attention,” Tung said.

“Catch your child being good, and reward that,” Lee said. Children will sometimes react negatively to rewards in the beginning, and parents at that point will often stop, but should continue, he added. “The child’s behavior will often get worse before it gets better.”

Children with ADHD are two to three times more likely than children without the disorder to develop serious substance abuse problems in adolescence and adulthood, Lee and colleagues reported in 2011.

To receive a diagnosis of ADHD by a child psychologist or psychiatrist, a child must have at least six of nine symptoms of either hyperactivity or inattention, the child’s behavior must be causing problems in his or her life, and the symptoms must not be explainable by any medical condition or any other mental disorder.

In addition, the symptoms must have started before age 12, must be present in multiple settings — at home and school, for example — and must be adversely affecting functioning.

Many more children meet the criteria for ADHD than are being treated for it, and many children may benefit from treatment who are not receiving it, Lee said.

Taken from newsroom

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Diagnosing ADHD Is Just A Few Minutes Away With The Help Of This New Technology

ADHD or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder diagnosis usually takes time considering that a child has to be taken to a specialist for series of assessment wherein symptoms had to observed. Imagine what it would be like if the diagnosis will only take a matter of minutes.

Braingaze, the technology that will help make this possible, was introduced during the ADHD Foundation Conference in Liverpool. By using eye movements as tracking mechanism of the person’s attention span, this new technology claimed that it could give an object indicator of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder within 10 minutes, BBC learned.

Laszlo Bax, Co-Founder and CEO at Braingaze, said that they are prioritizing medical diagnosis. They are looking for methods to scientifically determine if an individual suffers from ADHD.

A few months ago, Dan Maudsley was diagnosed with ADHD. It has been reported that the BBC journalist became the first person in the U.K. to have his diagnosis confirmed by the new system.

Diagnosing ADHD using the conventional methods may take up to 10 weeks, NHS reported. This period is what the General Practitioners or GP call “watchful waiting.”

During this time, the GP will ask the parents to identify and observe any signs of ADHD on the child and take note whether they improve, stay the same or get worse. If there is no improvement in the behavior, the GP will refer the parents to a specialist for more intensive and formal assessment.

The criteria for diagnosis of ADHD includes six or more symptoms of inattentiveness, or six or more symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsiveness. In addition, symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder must continuously manifest for at least six months.

There is a difference in diagnosing ADHD in a child with an adult. Specific criteria had to be considered that’s why the conventional method is time-consuming.

Taken from parentherald

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